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线上讲座 | 灾后重建 人道关怀
Adjunct Tutor.Collaborative Centre for Oxford University and CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Responses
In the context of increasingly severe global environmental problems and climate crises, frequent natural disasters also have a major impact on human survival and development. China and many Southeast Asian countries have been threatened by various natural disasters for many years. In the face of various disasters, people not only need to understand and understand disasters, but also prepare for disaster management in order to better protect human health and life safety.
On July 3rd, the BJTU+ team held the third online course lecture. This time we were fortunate to invite teacher Sharon to introduce us to post-disaster housing and health related knowledge.
In the content of this class, Mr. Sharon introduced us to global natural disasters and their impact on China, the process of disaster management, and the role of architecture in them, and also brought us some case sharing.
Next, let's review this wonderful lecture together.
No.1 How natural disasters affect us
Paying attention to human health is the core of all work. Among them, building a living environment that can protect health is particularly important. The requirements for a healthy living environment are not only limited to safety and stability, but also physical health, mental health and community happiness.
No.2 Preparation and response
SENDAI FRAMEWORK’s goal is to substantially reduce disaster risks and losses in life, livelihood and health of individuals, businesses, communities and countries, as well as in economic, material, social, cultural and environmental assets in the next 15 years.
The four reductions include: 1. Reduce disaster mortality 2. Reduce disaster impact 3. Reduce GDP loss 4. Reduce damage and loss of infrastructure
The three improvements include:
1. Improve national risk management strategies; 2. Increase international cooperation to support developing countries; 3. Build better early warning systems;
There are four priorities in the disaster response work of various countries: first, we must improve the awareness of disasters, then strengthen risk management, and at the same time, we need to increase government, organization, and society’s investment in disaster response. Finally, we need to better after disasters Restoration, reconstruction and adjustment.
Teacher Sharon also emphasized that responding to disasters is not only a matter of the country, but also a local area. Various organizations, charities, and college students in all relevant majors, including us, can work hard and contribute to it.
The disaster risk management cycle is divided into four phases, including disaster risk reduction, to minimize the possibility of disasters with a global view; preparation before disasters and preventive work; disaster response, taking timely measures to save lives; and disaster recovery , Rebuild, and promote sustainable development.
WHO Health –EDRM Framework
In 2019, WHO launched a new framework for health emergency management on the Global Disaster Risk Reduction Platform. The framework also aims to integrate health emergency management into the existing health system, thereby placing greater emphasis on risk prevention and health recovery at the community and country levels Strength, community resilience and disaster preparedness, response and recovery.
The main measures include: risk-based, proactive response, facing all risks, paying attention to vulnerable groups, obtaining support from the whole society, sharing the health system, risk management, community planning, etc.
NO.3 Care for human health
In this part, Mr. Sharon shared the unsuitable environmental conditions that may harm human health after the disaster, such as humidity, mold, poor thermal comfort, poor ventilation, lack of privacy, poor fire resistance, etc., and the possible harm.
An environment with a temperature above 32 degrees and a relative humidity above 60% is considered a hot and humid environment. A humid environment hinders the evaporation of sweat, thereby hindering the dissipation of heat, leading to a series of heat-related diseases and exacerbating basic health conditions such as lung disease and heart disease.
Source: Shi X, Zhu N, Zheng G. The combined effect of temperature, relative humidity and work intensity on human strain in hot and humid environments. Build Environ [Internet]. 2013;69:72–80.
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.07.016
NO.4 Group discussion: thinking from an architectural perspective
Next, Mr. Sharon raised a question for thinking, and I hope we will discuss in groups: consider disaster management at various stages (including the prevention preparation stage, the emergency response stage, and the recovery stage) from an architectural perspective.
After more than ten minutes of lively discussions among the groups, each group finally sorted out their own answers. Teacher Sharon affirmed everyone, and made corrections and supplements. Through the discussion, everyone has a more in-depth and comprehensive understanding of the factors that buildings need to consider in disaster management.
NO.5 Related case sharing
In the final stage, Mr. Sharon focused on sharing some post-disaster building cases, and guided us to think about the issues that should be considered in architecture and the solutions to various issues with actual cases.
Source: Spokane, A. R., Mori, Y., & Martinez, F. (2013). Housing Arrays Following Disasters: Social Vulnerability Considerations in Designing Transitional Communities. Environment and Behavior, 45(7), 887–911.
Through the sharing of teacher Sharon, we have a deeper understanding of the construction of buildings after the disaster, and also understand the key points and requirements of the buildings after the disaster. From the perspective of human health, pay attention to the physical health, mental health and social needs of the disaster-affected people, and create a loving and belonging post-disaster community environment to help the disaster-affected areas recover better.
In the follow-up design work, we will also pay attention to the humanistic care of the buildings after the disaster, create a shelter with warmth, and provide warmth and comfort to people affected by the disaster.
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