The general goal of emergency rescue is to minimize the consequences of accidents, including casualties, property losses and environmental damage, through effective emergency rescue operations. The basic tasks of emergency rescue include the following aspects:
Immediately organize the rescue of the victims, organize evacuation or take other measures to protect other personnel in the harm area, the rescue of the victims is the primary task of emergency rescue. In the emergency rescue operation, it is the key to reduce the casualty rate and accident loss to carry out the first aid and transfer the wounded safely in a fast, orderly and effective way. Due to the sudden occurrence of a major accident, rapid spread, involving widespread use and great harm, the masses should be guided and organized in time to take various measures for self-protection, and promptly evacuate from the dangerous area or the area that may be harmed when necessary. In the evacuation process, the masses should be actively organized to carry out self-rescue and mutual rescue work.
It is an important task of emergency rescue work to control the situation quickly, detect and monitor the damage caused by the accident, determine the hazard area, hazard nature and hazard degree of the accident and timely control the hazard source causing the accident. Only timely control of the source of danger, to prevent the continued expansion of the accident, in order to timely and effective rescue. Especially for chemical accidents occurring in cities or densely populated areas, engineering emergency teams should be organized as soon as possible together with technical personnel of accident units to control the accident in time and continue to expand.
Eliminate the harmful consequences and do a good job of on-site recovery. In view of the actual and possible hazards caused by the accident to human beings, animals and plants, soil and air, measures such as closure, isolation, disinfection and monitoring should be taken promptly to prevent continued hazards to human beings and pollution to the environment, and the ruins and infrastructure should be cleaned up in time to restore the accident site to a relatively stable state.
Recognize the cause of the accident and assess the degree of harm. After the accident, the cause and nature of the accident should be investigated in time, the damage scope and the degree of danger of the accident should be evaluated, the situation of the death of the personnel should be found out, the cause of the accident should be investigated well, and the experience and lessons of the rescue work should be summarized.
Features of post-disaster emergency
Post-disaster emergency response has the characteristics of uncertainty, suddenness, complexity, also the consequence and impact is easy to change suddenly, and intensify and enlarge.
Uncertainty and suddenness are the common characteristics of all kinds of public safety accidents, disasters and events. Most accidents break out suddenly, with no obvious warning before the outbreak, and once they happen, the development is rapid and even out of control. Require emergency action must, therefore, the first scene in a very short time accident within an effective response, have a major disaster in the accident consequences after take a variety of effective protection, rescue, evacuation, and control the situation, in order to ensure the effective initial response and timely control of the situation, the emergency rescue work should adhere to the principle of localization is given priority to, and emphasizes the local emergency preparedness work, including set up 24-hour day and night on duty system, ensure alarm, command and communication system always stay in good condition, clarify the responsibilities of each department, make sure that all kinds of emergency rescue equipment, technical equipment, the goods is in good condition available at any time, Formulate scientific and effective emergency response plans and other measures.
The complexity of emergency activities is mainly manifested in the following aspects: the uncertainty and unforeseeable variability of the factors of emergency rescue, disaster or event impact and the law of evolution; The effective organization and management of numerous units from different departments participating in emergency rescue activities in information communication, action coordination and command, authorization and responsibility, communication and other aspects; In the process of emergency response, the public's reaction and panic psychology, the complexity of public over-urgency and other sudden behaviors. The effectiveness of these complex reasons mainly refers to the effectiveness of emergency rescue operations, which to a large extent depends on the adequacy of emergency preparedness, including the construction and training of emergency teams, emergency equipment (application), equipment and maintenance, formulation and implementation of contingency plans, and the effective external reinforcement mechanism, etc.
Rapid means the establishment of a rapid emergency response mechanism, which can quickly and accurately transmit accident information and quickly summon the required emergency forces, equipment, materials and other resources; Quickly establish a unified command and coordination system to carry out rescue activities.
Accuracy requires a corresponding emergency decision-making mechanism, which can correctly predict the development trend of the accident and accurately make decisions on emergency rescue operations and tactics based on the information of the scale, nature, characteristics and scene environment of the accident.
Effectiveness mainly refers to the effectiveness of emergency rescue operations, which to a large extent depends on the adequacy of emergency preparedness, including the construction and training of emergency teams, the allocation and maintenance of emergency equipment (facilities) and materials, the formulation and implementation of emergency plans, and the effective external reinforcement mechanism, etc.