发布日期:2021-04-24 19:23



答题积分共90分以上,可获得建艺一层文创咖啡店20元以下饮品一杯及SDC team BJTU+团队周边水杯一件。

Starting today, we will launch a total of 4 post-disaster rescue answers, with a total score of 100 points, and prizes will be awarded according to the points system.

A total of 90 points or more for the answer points, you can get a cultural and creative coffee shop on the first floor of Jianyi and less than 20 yuan
One drink and one water cup around the SDC team BJTU+ team.
70 points or more can get a 10 yuan voucher for the cultural and creative coffee shop on the first floor of Jianyi.
60 points or more can get a 5 yuan voucher for the cultural and creative coffee shop on the first floor of Jianyi.
Participants who answer each question will get a 3 yuan voucher for the cultural and creative coffee shop on the first floor of Jianyi.

1. What is golden seventy-two hours?



"Golden 72 hours" is the golden rescue period after the occurrence of geological disasters, which is the consensus of the rescue community. The rescue community believes that there is a "golden 72 hours" after the disaster, during which the survival rate of the victims is extremely high. Every time an extra piece of soil is digged, an extra piece of land can be digged to give the injured a chance to breathe and live. In previous major earthquakes around the world, international rescue within 72 hours is the most effective rescue method.

After the occurrence of geological disasters such as earthquakes, within 72 hours, the survival rate of the victims showed a decreasing trend with the passage of time. On the first day (that is, within 24 hours), the survival rate of rescued personnel was around 90%; on the second day, the survival rate was 50%-60%; on the third day, the survival rate was 20%-30%.

However, after 72 hours, it is not impossible to survive. Judging from the Tangshan earthquake and other experiences, there have been cases of survival more than 10 days after the disaster, but that is a special case.

2. Is 72 hours a symbol of life and death?
从医学方面来说, 生命存在, 也就是生命的极限状态, 必须具备:心脏还在跳动, 血液尚在循环, 有血压, 机体有基本的代谢活动, 当然还要有体温。要保证生命达到极限状态而不死, 人体必须具备基本的血液循环和基本的机体代谢功能 单单这两者之间, 还有个前因后果的关系——只有有了血液循环, 机体组织才有继续代谢的可能。所以, 维持血液循环是维持生命最基本的要素

From the medical point of view, the existence of life, which is the limit state of life, must have: the heart is still beating, the blood is still circulating, there is blood pressure, the body has basic metabolic activities, and of course body temperature. To ensure that life reaches its limit state without dying, the human body must have basic blood circulation and basic metabolic functions. Between the two alone, there is a cause-and-effect relationship - only with blood circulation can the body tissues continue to metabolize. Therefore, maintaining blood circulation is the most basic element of life.

对于一个绝对绝食绝水的受难者, 血容量, 也就是循环血量的维持是个最主要的挑战 。因为, 只要生命循环在继续, 机体就必须有体表和呼吸的水分自然挥发、肾脏的常规尿液排除这三大途径排除水分。倘若一直没有外来水分补充, 水分就会出现严重“赤字” 。这时, 为了维持基本的血液循环, 机体就只能动用“仓库”里的“战略储备油”竭力榨取体内组织里储存的那些少得可怜的水分, 而它们通常只可供 2~3天使用 。

For a victim who is absolutely on hunger strike, blood volume, that is, the maintenance of circulating blood volume, is the most important challenge. Because, as long as the life cycle continues, the body must have three ways to remove water from the body's surface and breathing naturally, and the kidney's regular urine excretion. If there is no external water replenishment, there will be a serious "deficit" in water. At this time, in order to maintain the basic blood circulation, the body can only use the "strategic reserve oil" in the "warehouse" to squeeze the pitiful water stored in the body's tissues, and they usually only last for 2 to 3 days. use.

这就是“黄金72 小时”救援的由来。当受难者的动力器官心脏没有问题的话, 循环血量的维持最为必要。血液循环的正常与否则取决于动力器官心脏、体现循环系统完整性的血管和承担循环容量的血液对于巨大灾害中能够超越生命极限的幸存者, 其心脏受损的可能性比较小, 动脉持续出血的可能性也比较少, 存在部分可能性应该为静脉出血, 由于其压力低, 流速慢, 有自救止血的机会 。因此, 对于一个没有重要生命器官损伤, 没有活动出血的受困者, 多数是有可能活过 72 小时的 。
This is the origin of the "golden 72 hours" rescue. When there is no problem with the heart, the power organ of the victim, the maintenance of circulating blood volume is most necessary. The normality of blood circulation depends on the heart, the power organ, the blood vessels that reflect the integrity of the circulatory system, and the blood that bears the circulatory capacity. For survivors who can exceed the limit of life in a catastrophe, the possibility of heart damage is relatively small, and the possibility of continuous arterial bleeding is also relatively small. Part of the possibility should be venous bleeding. Due to its low pressure and slow flow rate, there is Opportunity to save yourself to stop bleeding. Therefore, for a trapped person with no vital organ damage and no active bleeding, most of them are likely to live more than 72 hours.

3. What is the meaning of certainty?

In the academic literature, there is almost no official data that objectively defines the survival time of a person under collapsed building ruins. The so-called "golden 72 hours" is not a strict "time limit for death." Determining the survival time of the trapped is actually to facilitate the government to decide whether to continue to use limited resources in search and rescue, and when to transform the disaster relief policy from tracing and rescue to a post-disaster reconstruction model. After the disaster, the meaning of the "reconstruction phase" is "We will start to use heavy machinery to clean up the ruins, and no longer consider whether there is a possibility of surviving people in the ruins."


Studies have shown that a small number of victims trapped due to building collapse can survive for 5-6 days. Under ideal circumstances, it can even survive for up to two weeks. So 14 days after the World Trade Center collapsed, New York City declared the missing person dead.
Within 72 hours of the golden period, life assistance will be the main focus, and epidemic prevention and restoration will be the later stage.

4. What can ordinary people do?

如果遭受严重创伤, 废墟中挺过 72 小时, 解救出来后未必就能挺下去 。“5 ·12”汶川大地震后, 就有一些类似案例 。但生存极限的延长离不开科学、合理和及时的医疗救助, 那些成功挑战 72 小时法则的人, 如果没有后期治疗, 也很难生存下去 。地震中由于人体受到不同程度的挤压, 大腿 、臀部等肌肉丰满的地方最容易出现组织坏死的情况,产生“挤压综合征”在这种情况下, 应立即把这部分肢体进行包扎, 否则坏死的肌肉释放出来的肌红素等蛋白质 、以及钾离子等电解质就会随着血液循环进入内脏, 导致肾脏或心脏功能衰竭 。一旦出现这种情况, 病人几分钟就会死去。这也就解释了为什么有些人能在废墟下坚持那么久, 被救出时却不幸身亡 。

If you suffer severe trauma and survive 72 hours in the ruins, you may not be able to survive after being rescued. After the "5·12" Wenchuan earthquake, there were some similar cases. However, the survival limit cannot be prolonged without scientific, reasonable and timely medical assistance. Those who successfully challenge the 72-hour rule cannot survive without post-treatment. As the human body is squeezed to varying degrees during the earthquake, the thighs, buttocks and other muscles are most prone to tissue necrosis, resulting in "squeeze syndrome". In this case, this part of the limb should be bandaged immediately, otherwise proteins such as myoglobin and electrolytes such as potassium ions released by the necrotic muscle will circulate into the internal organs, causing kidney or heart failure. Once this happens, the patient will die in a few minutes. This also explains why some people can persist under the rubble for so long, but unfortunately died when they were rescued.


遵照“三靠一避”的原则( 靠近水源 、公路、现场 、避开危险品) , 确定宿营地, 迅速展开工作。
In accordance with the principle of "Three Reliances and One Avoidance" (close to water sources, highways, on-site, avoid dangerous goods), determine the campsite and start work quickly.


在不能将受害者救出现场的情况下, 应先对其止血、喂水、输液对于不能接触的深藏受难者, 要力争通风 、送气, 用管道送水、送奶及必要的止血用品。
When the victim cannot be rescued to the scene, he should stop bleeding, feed water, and infusion first. For the deeply hidden victims who cannot be contacted, try to ventilate and supply air, and use pipes to deliver water, milk and necessary hemostatic supplies. .


迅速判断病情, 避免二次损伤。对衰弱患者急救时, 应先清除呼吸道异物, 要特别注意内损伤, 补充营养物时需递进, 注意速度, 不要盲目进食, 减少次生损伤。
Quickly judge the condition and avoid secondary damage. For frail patients, first remove foreign bodies in the respiratory tract, pay special attention to internal injuries, and pay attention to speed when supplementing nutrients. Do not eat blindly to reduce secondary damage.


及时进行抗感染治疗, 消除感染灶, 预防破伤风 、坏疽等外伤特殊感染。
Carry out anti-infective treatment in time to eliminate infection foci and prevent special trauma infections such as tetanus and gangrene.


加强心理疏导, 医治心灵创伤。
Strengthen psychological counseling and heal spiritual trauma.



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