"Golden 72 hours" is the golden rescue period after the occurrence of geological disasters, which is the consensus of the rescue community. The rescue community believes that there is a "golden 72 hours" after the disaster, during which the survival rate of the victims is extremely high. Every time an extra piece of soil is digged, an extra piece of land can be digged to give the injured a chance to breathe and live. In previous major earthquakes around the world, international rescue within 72 hours is the most effective rescue method.
After the occurrence of geological disasters such as earthquakes, within 72 hours, the survival rate of the victims showed a decreasing trend with the passage of time. On the first day (that is, within 24 hours), the survival rate of rescued personnel was around 90%; on the second day, the survival rate was 50%-60%; on the third day, the survival rate was 20%-30%.
However, after 72 hours, it is not impossible to survive. Judging from the Tangshan earthquake and other experiences, there have been cases of survival more than 10 days after the disaster, but that is a special case.
From the medical point of view, the existence of life, which is the limit state of life, must have: the heart is still beating, the blood is still circulating, there is blood pressure, the body has basic metabolic activities, and of course body temperature. To ensure that life reaches its limit state without dying, the human body must have basic blood circulation and basic metabolic functions. Between the two alone, there is a cause-and-effect relationship - only with blood circulation can the body tissues continue to metabolize. Therefore, maintaining blood circulation is the most basic element of life.
For a victim who is absolutely on hunger strike, blood volume, that is, the maintenance of circulating blood volume, is the most important challenge. Because, as long as the life cycle continues, the body must have three ways to remove water from the body's surface and breathing naturally, and the kidney's regular urine excretion. If there is no external water replenishment, there will be a serious "deficit" in water. At this time, in order to maintain the basic blood circulation, the body can only use the "strategic reserve oil" in the "warehouse" to squeeze the pitiful water stored in the body's tissues, and they usually only last for 2 to 3 days. use.
This is the origin of the "golden 72 hours" rescue. When there is no problem with the heart, the power organ of the victim, the maintenance of circulating blood volume is most necessary. The normality of blood circulation depends on the heart, the power organ, the blood vessels that reflect the integrity of the circulatory system, and the blood that bears the circulatory capacity. For survivors who can exceed the limit of life in a catastrophe, the possibility of heart damage is relatively small, and the possibility of continuous arterial bleeding is also relatively small. Part of the possibility should be venous bleeding. Due to its low pressure and slow flow rate, there is Opportunity to save yourself to stop bleeding. Therefore, for a trapped person with no vital organ damage and no active bleeding, most of them are likely to live more than 72 hours.
In the academic literature, there is almost no official data that objectively defines the survival time of a person under collapsed building ruins. The so-called "golden 72 hours" is not a strict "time limit for death." Determining the survival time of the trapped is actually to facilitate the government to decide whether to continue to use limited resources in search and rescue, and when to transform the disaster relief policy from tracing and rescue to a post-disaster reconstruction model. After the disaster, the meaning of the "reconstruction phase" is "We will start to use heavy machinery to clean up the ruins, and no longer consider whether there is a possibility of surviving people in the ruins."
Studies have shown that a small number of victims trapped due to building collapse can survive for 5-6 days. Under ideal circumstances, it can even survive for up to two weeks. So 14 days after the World Trade Center collapsed, New York City declared the missing person dead.
Within 72 hours of the golden period, life assistance will be the main focus, and epidemic prevention and restoration will be the later stage.
If you suffer severe trauma and survive 72 hours in the ruins, you may not be able to survive after being rescued. After the "5·12" Wenchuan earthquake, there were some similar cases. However, the survival limit cannot be prolonged without scientific, reasonable and timely medical assistance. Those who successfully challenge the 72-hour rule cannot survive without post-treatment. As the human body is squeezed to varying degrees during the earthquake, the thighs, buttocks and other muscles are most prone to tissue necrosis, resulting in "squeeze syndrome". In this case, this part of the limb should be bandaged immediately, otherwise proteins such as myoglobin and electrolytes such as potassium ions released by the necrotic muscle will circulate into the internal organs, causing kidney or heart failure. Once this happens, the patient will die in a few minutes. This also explains why some people can persist under the rubble for so long, but unfortunately died when they were rescued.
遵照“三靠一避”的原则( 靠近水源 、公路、现场 、避开危险品) , 确定宿营地, 迅速展开工作。
In accordance with the principle of "Three Reliances and One Avoidance" (close to water sources, highways, on-site, avoid dangerous goods), determine the campsite and start work quickly.
When the victim cannot be rescued to the scene, he should stop bleeding, feed water, and infusion first. For the deeply hidden victims who cannot be contacted, try to ventilate and supply air, and use pipes to deliver water, milk and necessary hemostatic supplies. .
Quickly judge the condition and avoid secondary damage. For frail patients, first remove foreign bodies in the respiratory tract, pay special attention to internal injuries, and pay attention to speed when supplementing nutrients. Do not eat blindly to reduce secondary damage.
及时进行抗感染治疗, 消除感染灶, 预防破伤风 、坏疽等外伤特殊感染。
Carry out anti-infective treatment in time to eliminate infection foci and prevent special trauma infections such as tetanus and gangrene.
Strengthen psychological counseling and heal spiritual trauma.
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